Validation of a Protective and Promotive Factors Measure: The Youth Thrive Survey

Charlyn Harper Browne, Lisa Mishraky-Javier

Abstract


This article describes the background, development, and validation of the strengths-based, youth-driven Youth Thrive Survey which measures the 5 protective and promotive factors delineated in the Youth Thrive Framework; specifically: youth resilience, social connections, knowledge of adolescent development, concrete support in times of need, and cognitive and social-emotional competence. Draft instruments were created that included new items and adapted items from existing validated instruments. Revisions were based on feedback from young people who participated in focus groups, cognitive interviews, and field-testing. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to measure internal consistency and reliability of the full instrument and the 5 protective and promotive factor subscales. Principal component analyses revealed items that did not fit well within the instrument structure and subsequently were eliminated. Analyses of the final version of the instrument showed that the Youth Thrive Survey has high levels of internal consistency and reliability. All alphas for the subscales were greater than 0.80 and the alpha for the full instrument was 0.963. This web-based, self-report survey is appropriate for use by organizations serving young people ages 12 to 26, both those who are involved with child welfare and juvenile justice systems and those who have no history of such involvement. It can be used for assessment and case planning with youth, program evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. The Youth Thrive Survey, available in English and Spanish, shows great promise and utility for organizations that employ positive youth development approaches.


Keywords


youth assessment tool; protective and promotive factors; adolescent development; youth well-being; thriving

Full Text:

PDF

References


American Psychological Association. (2019). The road to resilience. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience

Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. D., Pollard, J. A., Catalano, R. F., & Baglioni, A. J. (2002). Measuring risk and protective factors for substance use, delinquency and other adolescent problem behaviors: The communities that care youth survey. Evaluation Review, 26, 575-601. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11004980_Measuring_Risk_And_Protective_Factors_For_Substance_Use_Delinquency_And_Other_Adolescent_Problem_Behaviors_The_Communities_That_Care_Youth_Survey

Barker, G. (‎2007)‎. Adolescents, social support and help-seeking behaviour : An international literature review and programme consultation with recommendations for action. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43778

Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research. (2013). Translational neuroscience: Life and the adolescent brain. Cornell University, College of Human Ecology. www.human.cornell.edu/hd/people/upload/Life-and-the-Adolescent-Brain-_-BCTR.pdf

Casey, B. J., Jones, R. M., & Hare, T. A. (2008, March). The adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 111-126. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1440.010

Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2002, June). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention & Treatment, 5(1). Article ID 15. https://doi.org/10.1037//1522-3736.5.1.515a

Catalano, R. F., Gavin, L. E., & Markham, C. M. (2010, March). Future directions for positive youth development as a strategy to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(3) Supplement, S92-S96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.12.026

Choudhury, S., Blakemore, S.-J., & Charman, T. (2006). Social cognitive development during adolescence. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1(3), 163-164.

Ciocanel, O., Power, K., Eriksen, A., & Gillings, K. (2017, March). Effectiveness of positive youth development interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(3), 483-504. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0555-6

Cox, K. F. (2006). Investigating the impact of strength-based assessment on youth with emotional or behavioral disorders. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(3), 278-292. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225563473_Investigating_the_Impact_of_Strength-Based_Assessment_on_Youth_with_Emotional_or_Behavioral_Disorders

Crone, E. A. (2009). Executive functions in adolescence: Inferences from brain and behavior. Developmental Science, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00918.x

Dahl, R. E. (2004). Adolescent brain development: A period of vulnerabilities and opportunities (keynote address). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 1-22.

Dunteman, G. H. (1989). Principal components analysis. Sage Publications.

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 474-501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x

Dymnicki, A. B., Menestrel, S. L., Boyd, M. J., Lauxman, L., Oberlander, S. E., Osher, D. (2016, December). Developing a federal research agenda for positive youth development: Identifying gaps in the field and an effective consensus building approach. Journal of Youth Development, 11(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2016.430

Easterbrooks, M. A., Ginsberg, K., & Lerner, R. M. (2013, Fall). Resilience among military youth. The Future of Children, 23(2), 99-120. https://doi.org/10.1353/foc.2013.0014

Epstein, M. H. (2004). Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: A strength-based approach to assessment, Examiner’s Manual (2nd ed.). PRO-ED.

Etikan, I. (2016, January). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. 5(1), 1-4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304339244_Comparison_of_Convenience_Sampling_and_Purposive_Sampling

Fergus, S., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). Adolescent resilience: A framework for understanding healthy development in the face of risk. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 399-419. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144357

Gavin, L. E., Catalano, R. F., David-Ferdon, C., Gloppen, K. M., & Markham, C. M. (2010). A review of positive youth development programs that promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(3), S75-S91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.215

Guerra, N. G., & Bradshaw, C. P. (Eds.) (2008, Winter). Linking the prevention of problem behaviors and positive youth development: Core competencies for positive youth development and risk prevention. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2008 Winter(122). https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.225

Jaworska, N., & MacQueen, G. (2015). Adolescence as a unique developmental period. (editorial). Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 40(5), 291-293. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4543091/pdf/jpn-40-291.pdf

Keating, D. P. (2004). Cognitive and brain development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 45-84). John Wiley & Sons.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed). Guilford Press.

Lerner, R. M. (2009). The positive youth development perspective: Theoretical and empirical bases of a strengths-based approach to adolescent development. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford library of psychology: Oxford handbook of positive psychology, (2nd ed., pp.149-163). Oxford University Press.

Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2013). Fact sheet. The positive development of youth: Comprehensive findings from the 4-H study of positive youth development. Tufts University, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development. https://4-h.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/4-H-Study-of-Positive-Youth-Development-Fact-Sheet.pdf

Luthar, S. S. (Ed.). (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge University Press.

Luthar, S. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2000). The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Developmental Psychopathology, 12(4), 857-885. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00164

Masten, A. S. (2001, March). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227-238. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/54fd/cd219dd064230cf9d6a551dda717ce87598c.pdf?_ga=2.12326644.1713126608.1614050516-1889518223.1611894270

Murphey, D., Barry, M., & Vaughn, B. (2013, January). Positive mental health: Resilience. Child Trends. https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Child_Trends-2013_11_01_AHH_Resilience.pdf

National Institute of Mental Health. (2011). The teen brain: Still under construction. www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-teen-brain-still-under-construction/index.shtml

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2015). Supportive relationships and active skill-building strengthen the foundations of resilience: Working Paper 13. https://46y5eh11fhgw3ve3ytpwxt9r-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/The-Science-of-Resilience2.pdf

Novick, E. R., Kim, J. I., Mazloomdoost, Y., Barthle, C., & Hays, L. (2018). Adolescent health: Think, Act, Grow (TAG)—A strengths-based approach to promoting health in youth. Journal of Youth Development, 13(3), 97-110. https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2018.598

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. American Psychological Association; Oxford University Press.

Resnick, M. D. (2005). Healthy youth development: Getting our priorities right. Medical Journal of Australia, 183(8), 398-400. https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2005.tb07101.x

Richter, L. M. (2006). Studying adolescence. Science, 312(5782), 1902-1905. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1866186

Steinberg, L. (2005, February). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9(2), 69-74.

United Nations Children’s Fund. (2011). The state of the world’s children 2011: Adolescence, an age of opportunity. www.unicef.org/sowc2011/pdfs/SOWC-2011-Main-Report_EN_02092011.pdf

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health. (2018, November). Adolescent Development Explained. U.S. Government Printing Office. https://opa.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/2020-08/opa-adolescent-development-explained-download.pdf

Unrau, Y. A., Conrady-Brown, M., Zosky, D., & Grinnell, R. M. (2006). Connecting youth in foster care with needed mental health services: Lessons from research on help-seeking. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 3(2), 91-109. https://doi.org/10.1300/j394v03n02_05

Werner, E. E. (2000). Protective factors and individual resilience. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (p. 115-132). Cambridge University Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2021.933

Copyright (c) 2021 Charlyn Harper Browne, Lisa Mishraky-Javier

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.