Sociopolitical Participation Among Marginalized Youth: Do Political Identification and Ideology Matter?

Aixa D. Marchand, Michael Frisby, Maura R. Kraemer, Channing J. Mathews, Matthew A. Diemer, Adam M. Voight

Abstract


Engaging youth in the political system has promise for creating social change and ensuring the future of our democracy. Sociopolitical participation—individual and/or collective action to facilitate change—may be biased towards more liberal or Democratic views, which emphasize reform to create social equity. The aim of this study is to test if youth who vary in political ideology (i.e., conservative, liberal) and political identification (i.e., Republican, Democrat) participate at different levels and whether this measurement of sociopolitical participation is in fact biased. These issues were examined among 237 youth attending a large Midwestern high school who generally identified with historically marginalized groups. Results suggest that youth identifying as Republican exhibited slightly higher levels of participation, and that items were not biased by political ideology or identification. Further, political ideology and identification explained less than 5% of the variance in sociopolitical action, suggesting it is largely independent of political leaning.


Keywords


critical consciousness; marginalized youth; MIMIC models; sociopolitical development

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adler, R. P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What do we mean by “civic engagement”? Journal of Transformative Education, 3(3), 236-253. (https://doi.org/10.1177/1541344605276792)

Anyiwo, N., Bañales, J., Rowley, S. J., Watkins, D. C., & Richards-Schuster, K. (2018). Sociocultural influences on the sociopolitical development of African American youth. Child Development Perspectives. 12, 165-170. (https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12276)

Ballard, P. J. (2016). Longitudinal links between discrimination and civic development among Latino and Asian adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26, 723-737. (https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12221)

Beyerlein, K., & Hipp, J. R. (2006). From pews to participation: The effect of congregation activity and context on bridging civic engagement. Social Problems, 53(1), 97-117. (https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2006.53.1.97)

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.

Cabrera, N. L., Milem, J. F., Jaquette, O., & Marx, R. W. (2014). Missing the (student achievement) forest for all the (political) trees: Empiricism and the Mexican American studies controversy in Tucson. American Educational Research Journal, 51(6), 1084-1118. (https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214553705)

Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (2019). Growing Voters: Engaging Youth Before They Reach Voting Age to Strengthen Democracy. (https://civicyouth.org/growing-voters-engaging-youth-before-they-reach-voting-age-to-strengthen-democracy/)

Cole, E. R. (2009). Intersectionality and research in psychology. American Psychologist, 64(1), 170-180. (https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014564)

DeAngelo, L., Schuster, M. T., & Stebleton, M. J. (2016). California DREAMers: Activism, identity, and empowerment among undocumented college students. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(3), 216. (https://doi. org/10.1037/dhe0000023)

Diemer, M. A., & Li, C. H. (2011). Critical consciousness development and political participation among marginalized youth. Child Development, 82(6), 1815-1833. (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01650.x)

Diemer, M. A., Mistry, R. S., Wadsworth, M. E., López, I., & Reimers, F. (2013). Best practices in conceptualizing and measuring social class in psychological research. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 13(1),77-113. (https://doi.org/10.1111/asap.12001)

Diemer, M. A., Pinedo, A., Bañales, J., Mathews, C. J., Frisby, M. B., Harris, E. M., & McAlister, S. (2021). Recentering action in critical consciousness. Child Development Perspectives, 15(1), 12-17. (https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12393)

Diemer, M. A., & Rapa, L. J. (2016). Unraveling the complexity of critical consciousness, political efficacy, and political action among marginalized adolescents. Child Development, 87(1), 221-238. (https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12446)

Diemer, M. A., Rapa, L. J., Park, C. J., & Perry, J. C. (2017). Development and validation of the critical consciousness scale. Youth & Society, 49(4), 461-483. (https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X14538289)

Diemer, M. A., Rapa, L. J., Voight, A. M., & McWhirter, E. H. (2016). Critical consciousness: A developmental approach to addressing marginalization and oppression. Child Development Perspectives, 10(4), 216-221. (https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12193)

Diemer, M. A., Voight, A. M., Marchand, A., & Bañales, J. (2019). Political identification, political ideology, and critical social analysis of inequality among marginalized youth. Developmental Psychology, 55(3), 538-549. (https://doi.org/11.1037/dev0000559)

Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8:3, 430- 457. (https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0803_5)

Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. Norton.

Flanagan, C. A. (2004). Volunteerism, leadership, political socialization, and civic engagement. In Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (Eds.). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (721-746). Wiley.

Freire, P. (1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum.

Gaby, S. (2017). The civic engagement gap(s): Youth participation and inequality from 1976 to 2009. Youth & Society, 49(7), 923-946. (https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X16678155)

Ginwright, S. A. (2015). Radically healing Black lives: A love note to justice. New directions for student leadership, 2015(148), 33-44. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1002/yd.20151)

Hooghe, M., & Stolle, D. (2004). Good girls go to the polling booth, bad boys go everywhere: Gender differences in anticipated political participation among American fourteen‐year‐olds. Women, & Politics, 26(3-4), 1-23. (https://doi.org/10.1300/j014v26n03_01)

Hope, E. C., Gugwor, R., Riddick, K. N., & Pender, K. N. (2019). Engaged against the machine: Institutional and cultural racial discrimination and racial identity as predictors of activism orientation among Black youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 63, 61-72. (https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12303)

Hope, E. C., Keels, M., & Durkee, M. I. (2016). Participation in Black Lives Matter and deferred action for childhood arrivals: Modern activism among Black and Latino college students. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(3), 203. (https://doi.org/10.1037/dhe0000032)

Hope, E. C., & Spencer, M. B. (2017). Civic engagement as an adaptive coping response to conditions of inequality: An application of phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory (PVEST). In Handbook on positive development of minority children and youth (pp. 421-435). (http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-43645-6_25)

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1),1-55. (https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118)

Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: Gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge University Press.

Jennings, M. K., & Niemi, R. G. (1968). The transmission of political values from parent to child. Am. Political Sci. Rev. 62(1), 169-184. (https://doi.org/10.2307/1953332)

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: Methodology in the social sciences (4th ed.). Guilford Press.

Knight, K. (1999). Liberalism and conservatism. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of political attitudes (pp. 59-158). Academic Press.

Laurison, D. (2016). Social class and political engagement in the United States. Sociology Compass, 10(8), 684-697. (https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12390)

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. (2017). Mplus user's guide: Statistical analysis with latent variables, user's guide. Muthén & Muthén.

Ortega-Williams, A., Wernick, L. J., DeBower, J., & Brathwaite, B. (2020). Finding relief in action: The intersection of youth-led community organizing and mental health in Brooklyn, New York City. Youth & Society, 52(4), 618-638. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X18758542)

Patterson, M. M., Bigler, R. S., Pahlke, E., Brown, C. S., Hayes, A. R., Ramirez, M. C., & Nelson, A. (2019). Toward a developmental science of politics. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 84(3), 7-185. (https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12410)

Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, H., Oswald, W., & Schulz, W. (2001).Citizenship and education in twenty-eight countries: Civic knowledge and engagement at age fourteen. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

Walker, T. (2018, December 11). “Education is political”: Neutrality in the classroom shortchanges students. NEA, (https://www.nea.org/advocating-for-change/new-from-nea/education-political-neutrality-classroom-shortchanges-students)

Watts, R. J., Diemer, M. A., & Voight, A. M. (2011). Critical consciousness: Current status and future directions. New directions for child and adolescent development, 2011(134), 43-57. (https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.310)

Watts, R. J., & Flanagan, C. (2007). Pushing the envelope on youth civic engagement: A developmental and liberation psychology perspective. Journal of community psychology, 35(6), 779-792. (https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20178)

Watts, R. J., Griffith, D. M., & Abdul-Adil, J. (1999). Sociopolitical development as an antidote for oppression - Theory and action. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(2), 255-271. (https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022839818873)

Watts, R. J., Williams, N. C., & Jagers, R. J. (2003). Sociopolitical development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 185-194. (https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023091024140)

Whitley, C. T., & Yoder, S. D. (2015). Developing social responsibility and political engagement: Assessing the aggregate impacts of university civic engagement on associated attitudes and behaviors. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 10(3), 217-233. (https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197915583941)

Wray-Lake, L., Arruda, E. H., & Hopkins, D. A. (2019). The party goes on: US young adults’ partisanship and political engagement across age and historical time. American Politics Research, 57(6), 1358-1375. (https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X198449692)

Verba, S. (2003). Would the dream of political equality turn out to be a nightmare? Perspectives on Politics 1(4), 663-679. (https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592703000458)

Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., & Yates, M. (1997). What we know about engendering civic identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(5), 620-631. (https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764297040005008)




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2021.1089

Copyright (c) 2021 Aixa D. Marchand, Michael Frisby, Maura R. Kraemer, Channing J. Mathews, Matthew A. Diemer, Adam M. Voight

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.