Does Gender Minority Professional Experience Impact Employment Discrimination? Two Résumé Experiments
Keywords:social discrimination, gender identity, employment, job application, personnel selection
We sought to examine perceived gender identity, perceived co-worker discomfort, and salary recommendations for youth counselors with transgender-related work experience. In two experiments conducted in 2016 and 2017, we randomized participants to view 1 of 2 résumés with varying work experience at a camp for transgender youth or a generic youth camp. Study 1 participants were 274 adult festivalgoers at a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender pride festival. Study 2 participants were 296 employed, heterosexual adults aged 35-60 from an online survey panel. In Study 1, viewing the résumé with transgender experience resulted in a statistically significantly higher likelihood of reporting the applicant was gender minority than cisgender (adjusted odds ratio = 3.76, 95% confidence interval [1.32, 10.72], p = .01), higher but not a statistically significant level of co-worker discomfort (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI [0.83, 2.32], p = .22), and, although not statistically significant, a $2,605 higher salary (95% CI [-$604, - $5,814], p = .11). In Study 2, we found a statistically significantly greater likelihood of reporting the applicant was gender minority than cisgender (OR = 2.56, 95% CI [1.36, 4.82], p < .01), statistically significantly higher odds of reported co-worker discomfort (OR = 3.57, 95% CI [2.15, 5.92], p < .01), and, although not statistically significant, a $1,374 higher salary (95% CI [-$1,931, $4,679], p = .41). Our results indicate the potential for stigma by association for professionals working with marginalized groups and suggest potential pathways through which employment discrimination may exacerbate existing inequities for gender minority people.
Bardales, N. (2013). Finding a job in "a beard and a dress": Evaluating the effectiveness of transgender anti-discrimination laws. (Unpublished bachelor's thesis). University of California, San Diego. Retrieved from https://polisci.ucsd.edu/_files/undergrad/Thesis%202013%20Finding%20a
Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C.-Y. (2005). Advocacy as a critical role for urban school counselors: Working toward equity and social justice. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 196-202.
Bendick, M., Jr., Jackson, C. W., & Romero, J. H. (1996). Employment discrimination against older workers: an experimental study of hiring practices. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 8(4), 25-46. doi:10.1300/J031v08n04_03
Boehm, S. A., Kunze, F., & Bruch, H. (2014). Spotlight on age‐diversity climate: The impact of age‐inclusive HR practices on firm‐level outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 67(3), 667-704. doi:10.1111/peps.12047
Bos, A. E., Pryor, J. B., Reeder, G. D., & Stutterheim, S. E. (2013). Stigma: Advances in theory and research. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 35(1), 1-9. doi:10.1080/01973533.2012.746147
Bragger, J. D., Kutcher, E., Morgan, J., & Firth, P. (2002). The effects of the structured interview on reducing biases against pregnant job applicants. Sex Roles, 46(7-8), 215-226. doi:10.1023/A:1019967231059
Buck, D. M., Plant, E. A., Ratcliff, J., Zielaskowski, K., & Boerner, P. (2013). Concern over the misidentification of sexual orientation: Social contagion and the avoidance of sexual minorities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(6), 941. doi:10.1037/a0034145
Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 55-75. doi:10.5465/amr.2008.27745097
Cortina, L. M., Kabat-Farr, D., Leskinen, E. A., Huerta, M., & Magley, V. J. (2013). Selective incivility as modern discrimination in organizations: Evidence and impact. Journal of management, 39(6), 1579-1605. doi:10.1177/0149206311418835
de Kock, F. S., & Hauptfleisch, D. B. (2018). Reducing racial similarity bias in interviews by increasing structure: A quasi-experiment using multilevel analysis. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 7(3), 137. doi:10.1037/ipp0000091
DeGraaf, D., & Glover, J. (2003). Long-Term impacts of working at an organized camp for seasonal staff. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 21(1), 1-20.
Denton, F. N., Rostosky, S. S., & Danner, F. (2014). Stigma-related stressors, coping self-efficacy, and physical health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. J Couns Psychol, 61(3), 383-391. doi:10.1037/a0036707
Derous, E., Buijsrogge, A., Roulin, N., & Duyck, W. (2016). Why your stigma isn't hired: A dual-process framework of interview bias. Human Resource Management Review, 26(2), 90-111. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.09.006
Dhanani, L. Y., Beus, J. M., & Joseph, D. L. (2018). Workplace discrimination: A meta‐analytic extension, critique, and future research agenda. Personnel Psychology, 71(2), 147-179. doi:10.1111/peps.12254
Digby, J. K., & Ferrari, T. M. (2007). Camp counseling and the development and transfer of workforce skills: The perspective of Ohio 4-H camp counselor alumni. Journal of Youth Development, 2(2), 103-122. doi:10.5195/jyd.2007.349
Duerden, M. D., Witt, P., Garst, B., Bialeschki, D., Schwarzlose, T., & Norton, K. (2014). The impact of camp employment on the workforce development of emerging adults. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 32(1).
Fenton, L. (2018). ‘You can see their minds grow’: identity development of LGBTQ youth at a residential wilderness camp. Leisure/Loisir, 42(3), 347-361. doi:10.1080/14927713.2018.1535276
Fouad, N., Gerstein, L., & Toporek, R. L. (2006). Social justice and counseling psychology in context. In R. L. Toporek, L. Gerstein, N. Fouad, G. Roysircar, & T. Israel (Eds.), Handbook for social justice in counseling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action (pp. 1-16). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Simoni, J. M., Kim, H. J., Lehavot, K., Walters, K. L., Yang, J., . . . Muraco, A. (2014). The health equity promotion model: Reconceptualization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health disparities. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(6), 653-663. doi:10.1037/ort0000030
Frost, D. M., Lehavot, K., & Meyer, I. H. (2015). Minority stress and physical health among sexual minority individuals. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38(1), 1-8. doi:10.1007/s10865-013-9523-8
Garst, B. A., Franz, N. K., Baughman, S., Smith, C., & Peters, B. (2009). Growing Without Limitations:” Transformation Among Young Adult Camp Staff. Journal of Youth Development, 4(1), 21-34. doi:10.5195/jyd.2009.272
Gillard, A., Buzuvis, E. E., & Bialeschki, M. D. (2014). Supporting transgender and gender nonconforming youth at summer camp. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 32(3).
Gillig, T. K., Miller, L. C., & Cox, C. M. (2019). “She finally smiles… for real”: Reducing depressive symptoms and bolstering resilience through a camp intervention for LGBTQ youth. Journal of Homosexuality, 66(3), 368-388. doi:10.1080/00918369.2017.1411693
Goffman, E. (1986). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Goldstein, S. B. (2017). Stigma and stigma by association in perceptions of straight allies. Journal of LGBT Youth, 14(4), 345-358. doi:10.1080/19361653.2017.1326867
Green, E. L., Benner, K., & Pear, R. (2018). ‘Transgender’ could be defined out of existenced under Trump administration. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/21/us/politics/transgender-trump-administration-sex-definition.html
Gurwitz, S. B., & Marcus, M. (1978). Effects of anticipated interaction, sex, and homosexual stereotypes on first impressions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 8(1), 47-56. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1978.tb00764.x
Hebl, M. R., Foster, J. B., Mannix, L. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study of bias toward homosexual applicants. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(6), 815-825. doi:10.1177/0146167202289010
Hebl, M. R., & Mannix, L. M. (2003). The weight of obesity in evaluating others: A mere proximity effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 28-38. doi:10.1177/0146167202238369
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. doi:10.1037/10628-000
Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
James, S. E., Herman, J. L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., & Anafi, M. (2016). The report of the 2015 U.S. transgender survey. Retrieved from http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/usts/USTS%20Full%20Report%20-%20FINAL%201.6.17.pdf
Jeong, M., Zhang, D., Morgan, J. C., Ross, J. C., Osman, A., Boynton, M. H., . . . Brewer, N. T. (2018). Similarities and differences in tobacco control research findings from convenience and probability samples. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. doi:10.1093/abm/kay059
Jones, K. P., Peddie, C. I., Gilrane, V. L., King, E. B., & Gray, A. L. (2016). Not so subtle: A meta-analytic investigation of the correlates of subtle and overt discrimination. Journal of management, 42(6), 1588-1613. doi:10.1177/0149206313506466
Kulik, C. T., Bainbridge, H. T., & Cregan, C. (2008). Known by the company we keep: Stigma-by-association effects in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 216-230. doi:10.2307/20159384
Lekus, I. K. (2001). Health care, the AIDS crisis, and the politics of community: The North Carolina Lesbian and Gay Health Project, 1982-1996. In A. M. Black (Ed.), Modern American Queer History (pp. 227-252). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Conceptualizing stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 363-385. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.363
Mail, P. D., & Lear, W. J. (2006). The role of public health in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health. In M. D. Shankle (Ed.), Handbook of lesbian, gay, bisexual, & transgender public health: A practitioner's guide to service (pp. 11-32). New York: Harrington Park Press.
Make the Road New York. (2010). Transgender need not apply: A report on gender identity job discrimination. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=institutes
Malek, N., Harrison, S. J., & John-Baptiste, A. (2017). Case 8: Camp fYrefly. Western Public Health Casebooks, 2017(1), 14. Retrieved from https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/westernpublichealthcases/vol2017/iss1/14/
Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychol Bull, 129(5), 674-697. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674
Neuberg, S. L., Smith, D. M., Hoffman, J. C., & Russell, F. J. (1994). When we observe stigmatized and "normal" individuals interacting: Stigma by association. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(2), 196-209. doi:10.1177/0146167294202007
Pedulla, D. S. (2014). The positive consequences of negative stereotypes: Race, sexual orientation, and the job application process. Social Psychology Quarterly, 77(1), 75-94. doi:10.1177/0190272513506229
Phillips, R., Benoit, C., Hallgrimsdottir, H., & Vallance, K. (2012). Courtesy stigma: A hidden health concern among front‐line service providers to sex workers. Sociology of Health and Illness, 34(5), 681-696. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2011.01410.x
Pitoňák, M. (2017). Mental health in non-heterosexuals: Minority stress theory and related explanation frameworks review. Mental Health & Prevention, 5, 63-73. doi:10.1016/j.mhp.2016.10.002
QORDS. (2019). About QORDS. Retrieved from https://qords.org/about/
Rainey, T., & Imse, E. E. (2015). Qualified and transgender: a report on the results of resume testing for employment discrimination based on gender identity. Retrieved from http://ohr.dc.gov/sites/default/files/dc/sites/ohr/publication/attachments/QualifiedAndTransgender_FullReport_1.pdf
Sack, W. H., Seidler, J., & Thomas, S. (1976). The children of imprisoned parents: a psychosocial exploration. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 46(4), 618-628. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb00960.x
Sigelman, C. K., Howell, J. L., Cornell, D. P., Cutright, J. D., & Dewey, J. C. (1991). Courtesy stigma: the social implications of associating with a gay person. Journal of Social Psychology, 131(1), 45-56. doi:10.1080/00224545.1991.9713823
Swim, J. K., Ferguson, M. J., & Hyers, L. L. (1999). Avoiding stigma by association: Subtle prejudice against lesbians in the form of social distancing. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21(1), 61-68. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp2101_6
Teich, N. M. (2019). Camp Aranu’tiq: Notes from the First Camp for Transgender and Gender Variant Youth. In A. I. Lev & A. R. Gottlieb (Eds.), Families in transition: Parenting gender diverse children, adolescents, and young adults. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press.
Vincke, J., & van Heeringen, K. (2004). Summer holiday camps for gay and lesbian young adults: An evaluation of their impact on social support and mental well-being. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(2), 33-46. doi:10.1300/J082v47n02_02
White Hughto, J. M., Reisner, S. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2015). Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Soc Sci Med, 147, 222-231. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.010
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.