Diversity and Inclusion as Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development Programs
Keywords:4-H, diversity, inclusion, positive youth development, learning orientation
Diversity and inclusion are essential elements of 4-H’s goals related to positive youth development, workforce development, and organizational sustainability. Previous research has examined Cooperative Extension professionals’ attitudes on this topic, demonstrating that most of them recognize the importance of diversity and inclusion in 4-H. Here we present results from a survey of adolescents participating in New York state 4-H programs assessing their endorsement of racial/ethnic diversity and inclusion in 4-H. Results revealed that, overall, youth felt positively toward this kind of diversity and inclusion in 4-H, and endorsement was most strongly predicted by a learning orientation that emphasizes acquiring new information through intergroup contact. We conclude with considerations for 4-H programs seeking to help young people develop and maintain an openness to diversity and inclusion.
Al Ramiah, A. A., Schmid, K., Hewstone, M., & Floe, C. (2015). Why are all the White (Asian) kids sitting together in the cafeteria? Resegregation and the role of intergroup attributions and norms. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 100-124. doi:10.1111/bjso.12064
Beelmann, A., & Heinemann, K. S. (2014). Preventing prejudice and improving intergroup attitudes: A meta-analysis of child and adolescent training programs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 10-24. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193397313001007
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., ... & Leyens, J. P. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 843-856. doi:10.1037/a0013470
Blaine, B. E., & Brenchley, K. J. M. (2018). Understanding the psychology of diversity (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Cohn, D. (2016, June 23). It’s official: Minority babies are the majority among the nation’s infants, but only just. Pew Research Center Fact Tank. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/06/23/its-official-minority-babies-are-the-majority-among-the-nations-infants-but-only-just/
Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014 to 2060. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/demo/p25-1143.pdf
Davies, K., Tropp, L. R., Aron, A., Pettigrew, T. F., & Wright, S. C. (2011). Cross-group friendships and intergroup attitudes: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 332-351. doi:10.1177/1088868311411103
Dover, T. L., Major, B., & Kaiser, C. R. (2016). Members of high-status groups are threatened by pro-diversity organizational messages. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 62, 58-67. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2015.10.006
Engberg, M. E. (2007). Educating the workforce for the 21st century: A cross-disciplinary analysis of the impact of the undergraduate experience on students’ development of a pluralistic orientation. Research in Higher Education, 48(3), 283-317. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11162-006-9027-2
Gómez, Á., Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., Fernández, S., & Vázquez, A. (2013). Responses to endorsement of commonality by ingroup and outgroup members: The roles of group representation and threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(4), 419-431. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167213475366
Grütter, J., & Meyer, B. (2014). Intergroup friendship and children's intentions for social exclusion in integrative classrooms: the moderating role of teachers' diversity beliefs. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 481-494. doi:10.1111/jasp.12240/abstract
Gutiérrez, V., Larson, R. W., Raffaelli, M., Fernandez, M., & Guzman, S. (2017). How staff of youth programs respond to culture-related incidents: Nonengagement versus going “full right in.” Journal of Adolescent Research, 32, 64-93. doi:10.1177/0743558416664028
Hilton, M. (2008). Skills for work in the 21st century: What does the research tell us?. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 22, 63-78. doi:10.5465/amp.2008.35590354
Ingram, P. D. (1999). Attitudes of extension professionals toward diversity education in 4-H programs. Journal of Extension, 37, Article 1FEA3. Retrieved from https://www.joe.org/joe/1999february/a3.php
Interactive New York 4-H ES-237 report. (2016). Proportion of youth reached. Retrieved from http://4hdata.com/ny-es-237
Knifsend, C. A., & Juvonen, J. (2017). Extracurricular activities in multiethnic middle schools: Ideal Context for Positive Intergroup Attitudes?. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27, 407-422. doi:10.1111/jora.12278
LaVergne, D. D. (2013). Diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs: Examining the perceptions among West Virginia 4-H youth professionals. Journal of Extension, 51, Article 4FEA1. Retrieved from https://www.joe.org/joe/2013august/a1.php
Lerner, R. M., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., & Lerner, J. V. (2005). Positive youth development: A view of the issues. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 10-16. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0272431604273211
Migacheva, K., & Tropp, L. R. (2012). Learning orientation as a predictor of positive intergroup contact. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16, 426-444. doi:10.1177/1368430212455854
National 4-H Council. (2016). Survey shows American youth feel today’s leaders have a different agenda: They lack skills to lead themselves [Press release]. Retrieved from https://4-h.org/media/survey-shows-american-youth-feel-todays-leaders-have-a-different-agenda-they-lack-skills-to-lead-themselves/
National 4-H Council. (2017). 4-H Youth Development: A 2025 vision. Retrieved from https://nifa.usda.gov/sites/default/files/resources/National%204-H%20Strategic%20Plan%202017.pdf
Plaut, V. C., Garnett, F. G., Buffardi, L. E., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2011). “What about me?” Perceptions of exclusion and Whites' reactions to multiculturalism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 337-353. doi:10.1037/a0022832
Walter, A., & Grant, S. (2011). Developing culturally responsive youth workers. Journal of Extension, 49, Article 5FEA9. Retrieved from https://www.joe.org/joe/2011october/a9.php
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.