Cultural Immersion Camps and Development of Ethnic Identity in Asian American Youth
Keywords:ethnic identity, Asian American youth, cultural immersion camp
The purpose of this study was to explore camp outcomes specialized in ethnic identity among Asian American youth after they participated in a residential cultural immersion camp. In this study, the cultural immersion camp is viewed as a mediating factor that channels other influences in such a way as to guide Asian American youth to commit more expressly and more fully to their perception of ethnic identity. The results obtained from 3 cultural immersion camps located in the Western United States reveals that cultural immersion camp experiences significantly increase perceived levels of ethnic identity among Asian American youth. Implications of cultural immersion camp on the development of Asian American youth are discussed.
Africa, J., & Carrasco, M. (2011). Asian-American and Pacific Islander mental health: Report from a NAMI listening session. Retrieved from http://www.drjeiafrica.com/Dr._Jei_Africa/Media_files/NAMIAAPI.pdf
Baden, A. L. (2015). Culture camp, ethnic identity, and adoption socialization for Korean adoptees: A pretest and posttest study. In E. E. Pinderhughes & R. Rosnati (Eds.), Adoptees’ ethnic identity within family and social contexts. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 150, 19–31. doi:10.1002/cad.20119
Baldwin, J. A. (1984). African self-consciousness and the mental health of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 15, 177-194.
Broman, C. L., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (1989). Sociocultural context and racial group identification among Black adults. Revue Internationale De Psychologie Sociale, 2, 367-378.
Browne, L. P., Gillard, A., & Garst, B. A. (2019). Camp as an institution of socialization: Past, present, and future. Journal of Experiential Education, 42(1), 51–64. doi:10.1177/1053825918820369
Castro, F. G., Stein, J. A., & Bentler, P. M. (2009). Ethnic pride, traditional family values, and acculturation in early cigarette and alcohol use among Latino adolescents. Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 265-292. doi:10.1007/s10935-009-0174-z
Cauce, A., Domenech-Rodríguez, M., Paradise, M., Cochran, B., Shea, M., Srebnik, D., Baydar, N. (2002). Cultural and contextual influences in mental health help seeking: A focus on ethnic minority youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 70. 44-55. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.70.1.44.
Chang, H. H., & Ng, K. S. (2002). The perception of resiliency mechanisms in Chinese American families: Implications for family therapy. Family Therapy, 29, 89-100.
Chu, J. P., & Sue, S. (2011). Asian American mental health: What we know and what we don't know. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 3(1). doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1026
Collins, K. S., Schoen, C., Joseph, S., Duchon, L., Simantov, E., & Yellowitz, M. (1999). Health concerns across a woman's lifespan: The commonwealth fund 1998 survey of women’s health. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Devos, T. (2006). Implicit bicultural identity among Mexican American and Asian American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 381-402.doi:10.1037/1099-9809.12.3.381
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
Gonzales, N. A., Knight, G. P., Morgan-Lopez, A. A., Saenz, D., & Sirolli, A. (2002). Acculturation and the mental health of Latino youths: An integration and critique of the literature. In J. M. Contreras, K. A. Kerns, & A. M. Neal-Barnett (Eds.), Latino children and families in the United States: Current research and future directions (pp. 45-74). Westport, CT: Prage.
Goyette, K., & Xie, Y. (1999). Educational expectations of Asian American youths: Determinants and ethnic differences. Sociology of Education, 72, 22-36. doi:10.2307/2673184
Hao, L., & Bonstead-Bruns, M. (1998). Parent-child differences in educational expectations and the academic achievement of immigrant and native students. Sociology of Education, 71, 175-198. doi:10.2307/2673201
Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). In Heights N. (Ed.), Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and process. MA: Allyn& Bacon.
Hoeffel, E. M., Rastogi, R., Kim M. O., & Shahid H. (2012). The Asian population: 2010. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-11.pdf
Juang, L. P., Simpson, J. A., Lee, R. M., Rothman, A. J., Titzmann, P. F., Schachner, M., . . . Betsch, C. (2018). Using attachment and relational perspectives to understand adaptation and resilience among immigrant and refugee youth. American Psychologist, 73, 797–811. doi:10.1037/amp0000286
Julian, T. W., McKenry, P. C., & McKelvey, M. W. (1994). Cultural variations in parenting: Perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American parents. Family Relations, 43(1), 30-37. doi:10.2307/585139
Keung, N. (2015, June 10). Study raises alarm over mental health of Asian immigrant youth. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/immigration/2015/06/10/study-raises-alarm-over-mental-health-of-asian-immigrant-youth.html
Lee, R. M., & Yoo, H. C. (2004). Structure and measurement of ethnic identity for Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 263-269. doi:10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1243
Le Espiritu, Y. (1992). Pan-Asian American ethnicity: Retrospect and prospect. In Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities (pp. 161-176). Temple University Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1bw1jcp.11
Lerner, R. M., Roeser, R. W., & Phelps, E. (Eds.). (2008). Positive youth development and spirituality: From theory to research. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Lorenzo, M. K., Frost, A. K., & Reinherz, H. Z. (2000). Social and emotional functioning of older Asian American adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(4), 289-304. doi:10.1023/A:1007598007205
Mandara, J., Gaylord-Harden, N. K., Richards, M. H., & Ragsdale, B. L. (2009). The effects of changes in racial identity and self-esteem on changes in African American adolescents’ mental health. Child Development, 80, 1660-1675. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01360.x
Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. Handbook of adolescent psychology, 9(11), 159-187.
Motti-Stefanidi F., & Masten A. S. (2017). A resilience perspective on immigrant youth adaptation and development. In N. J. Cabrera & B. Leyendecker (Eds.), Handbook on positive development of minority children and youth. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43645-6_2
Parham, T.A. (1989). Cycles of psychological nigrescence. The Counselling Psychologist, 17, 187-226. doi:10.1177/0011000089172001
Phinney, J. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176. doi:10.1177/074355489272003
Phinney, J. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. Organista, P. Chun & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 63-81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Phinney, J., & Tarver, S. (1988). Ethnic identity search and commitment in Black and White eighth graders. Journal of Early Adolescence, 8, 265-277. doi:10.1177/0272431688083004
Pinckney, H. P., Outley, C., Blake, J. J., & Kelly, B. (2011). Promoting positive youth development of Black youth: A rites of passage framework. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(1), 98-112.
Pomales, J., Claiborn, C. D., & LaFromboise, T. D. (1986). Effects of Black students' racial identity on perceptions of White counselors varying in cultural sensitivity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(1), 57-61. doi:10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.199
Rick, K., & Forward, J. (1992). Acculturation and perceived intergenerational differences among youth. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 85-94. doi:10.1177/0022022192231006
Rosenberg, M., & Simmons, R. (1971). Black and White self-esteem: The urban school child. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
Serafica, F. C. (1997). Psychopathology and resilience in Asian American children and adolescents. Applied Development Science, 1, 145-155. doi:10.1207/s1532480xads0103_5
Serafica, F. C., & Vargas, L. A. (2006). Cultural diversity in the development of child psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, 588-626. doi:10.1002/9780470939383.ch15
Snowden, L. R., & Cheung, F. K. (1990) Use of inpatient mental health services by members of ethnic minority groups. American Psychologist, 45(3), 347–355.
Suárez-Orozco, C., Motti-Stefanidi, F., Marks, A., & Katsiaficas, D. (2018). An integrative risk and resilience model for understanding the adaptation of immigrant-origin children and youth. American Psychologist, 73(6), 781–796. doi:10.1037/amp0000265
Sue, S., Fujino, D., Hu, L. T., Takeuchi, D. T., & Zane, N. W. (1991) Community mental health services for ethnic minority groups: A test of the cultural responsiveness hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 533–540.
Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Quintana, S. M., Lee, R. M., Cross, W. E., Jr., Rivas-Drake, D., Schwartz, S. J., . . . Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: an integrated conceptualization. Child Development, 85(1), 21–39. doi:10.1111/cdev.12196
Umemoto, K., & Ong, P. (2006). Asian American and Pacific Islander youth: Risks, challenges and opportunities. AAPI Nexus: Policy, Practice and Community, 4(2), v-x. Retrieved from UCLA Asian American Studies Center website: http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/aascpress/nexus4_2ME.pdf
U.S. Census. (2009). United States Population Projections: 2000-2050. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/working-papers/2009/demo/us-pop-proj-2000-2050.html
U.S. Census. (2017). Asian-American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month: May 2017. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2017/cb17-ff07.html
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity A supplement to mental health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from http://health-equity.pitt.edu/866/
Vespa, J., Armstrong, D. M., & Medina, L. (2018). Demographic Turning Points for the United States: Population Projections for 2020 to 2060. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/demo/P25_1144.pdf
Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science, 331(6023), 1447-1451. doi:10.1126/science.1198364
Waterman, A. S. (1984). Identity formation: Discovery or creation? The Journal of Early Adolescence, 4(4), 329–341. doi:10.1177/0272431684044004
Williams, M. W., Hean Foo, K., & Haarhoff, B. (2006). Cultural considerations in using cognitive behaviour therapy with Chinese people: A case study of an elderly Chinese woman with generalised anxiety disorder. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(3), 153-162.
Wing, J. Y. (2007). Beyond Black and White: The model minority myth and the invisibility of Asian American students. The Urban Review, 39(4), 455-487. doi:10.1007/s11256-007-0058-6
Yamaguchi, A., Kim, M. S., Oshio, A., & Akutsu, S. (2016). Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults. Health Psychology Open, 3(1). doi:10.1177/2055102916650093
Yeh, C. J., & Hwang, M. Y. (2011). Interdependence in ethnic identity and self: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(4), 420-429. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01925.x
Zane, N., Sue, S., Chang, J., Huang, L., Huang, J., & Lowe, S. (2005). Beyond ethnic match: Effects of client–therapist cognitive match in problem perception, coping orientation, and therapy goals on treatment outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(5), 569-585. doi:10.1002/jcop.20067
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.