Cultural Immersion Camps and Development of Ethnic Identity in Asian American Youth

Yi-Ju Wu, Corliss Outley, David Matarrita-Cascante

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to explore camp outcomes specialized in ethnic identity among Asian American youth after they participated in a residential cultural immersion camp. In this study, the cultural immersion camp is viewed as a mediating factor that channels other influences in such a way as to guide Asian American youth to commit more expressly and more fully to their perception of ethnic identity. The results obtained from 3 cultural immersion camps located in the Western United States reveals that cultural immersion camp experiences significantly increase perceived levels of ethnic identity among Asian American youth. Implications of cultural immersion camp on the development of Asian American youth are discussed.


Keywords


ethnic identity; Asian American youth; cultural immersion camp

Full Text:

PDF

References


Africa, J., & Carrasco, M. (2011). Asian-American and Pacific Islander mental health: Report from a NAMI listening session. Retrieved from http://www.drjeiafrica.com/Dr._Jei_Africa/Media_files/NAMIAAPI.pdf

Baden, A. L. (2015). Culture camp, ethnic identity, and adoption socialization for Korean adoptees: A pretest and posttest study. In E. E. Pinderhughes & R. Rosnati (Eds.), Adoptees’ ethnic identity within family and social contexts. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 150, 19–31. doi:10.1002/cad.20119

Baldwin, J. A. (1984). African self-consciousness and the mental health of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 15, 177-194.

Broman, C. L., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (1989). Sociocultural context and racial group identification among Black adults. Revue Internationale De Psychologie Sociale, 2, 367-378.

Browne, L. P., Gillard, A., & Garst, B. A. (2019). Camp as an institution of socialization: Past, present, and future. Journal of Experiential Education, 42(1), 51–64. doi:10.1177/1053825918820369

Castro, F. G., Stein, J. A., & Bentler, P. M. (2009). Ethnic pride, traditional family values, and acculturation in early cigarette and alcohol use among Latino adolescents. Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 265-292. doi:10.1007/s10935-009-0174-z

Cauce, A., Domenech-Rodríguez, M., Paradise, M., Cochran, B., Shea, M., Srebnik, D., Baydar, N. (2002). Cultural and contextual influences in mental health help seeking: A focus on ethnic minority youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 70. 44-55. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.70.1.44.

Chang, H. H., & Ng, K. S. (2002). The perception of resiliency mechanisms in Chinese American families: Implications for family therapy. Family Therapy, 29, 89-100.

Chu, J. P., & Sue, S. (2011). Asian American mental health: What we know and what we don't know. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 3(1). doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1026

Collins, K. S., Schoen, C., Joseph, S., Duchon, L., Simantov, E., & Yellowitz, M. (1999). Health concerns across a woman's lifespan: The commonwealth fund 1998 survey of women’s health. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Devos, T. (2006). Implicit bicultural identity among Mexican American and Asian American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(3), 381-402.doi:10.1037/1099-9809.12.3.381

Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

Gonzales, N. A., Knight, G. P., Morgan-Lopez, A. A., Saenz, D., & Sirolli, A. (2002). Acculturation and the mental health of Latino youths: An integration and critique of the literature. In J. M. Contreras, K. A. Kerns, & A. M. Neal-Barnett (Eds.), Latino children and families in the United States: Current research and future directions (pp. 45-74). Westport, CT: Prage.

Goyette, K., & Xie, Y. (1999). Educational expectations of Asian American youths: Determinants and ethnic differences. Sociology of Education, 72, 22-36. doi:10.2307/2673184

Hao, L., & Bonstead-Bruns, M. (1998). Parent-child differences in educational expectations and the academic achievement of immigrant and native students. Sociology of Education, 71, 175-198. doi:10.2307/2673201

Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). In Heights N. (Ed.), Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and process. MA: Allyn& Bacon.

Hoeffel, E. M., Rastogi, R., Kim M. O., & Shahid H. (2012). The Asian population: 2010. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-11.pdf

Juang, L. P., Simpson, J. A., Lee, R. M., Rothman, A. J., Titzmann, P. F., Schachner, M., . . . Betsch, C. (2018). Using attachment and relational perspectives to understand adaptation and resilience among immigrant and refugee youth. American Psychologist, 73, 797–811. doi:10.1037/amp0000286

Julian, T. W., McKenry, P. C., & McKelvey, M. W. (1994). Cultural variations in parenting: Perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American parents. Family Relations, 43(1), 30-37. doi:10.2307/585139

Keung, N. (2015, June 10). Study raises alarm over mental health of Asian immigrant youth. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/immigration/2015/06/10/study-raises-alarm-over-mental-health-of-asian-immigrant-youth.html

Lee, R. M., & Yoo, H. C. (2004). Structure and measurement of ethnic identity for Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 263-269. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.51.2.263

Le Espiritu, Y. (1992). Pan-Asian American ethnicity: Retrospect and prospect. In Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities (pp. 161-176). Temple University Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1bw1jcp.11

Lerner, R. M., Roeser, R. W., & Phelps, E. (Eds.). (2008). Positive youth development and spirituality: From theory to research. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Lorenzo, M. K., Frost, A. K., & Reinherz, H. Z. (2000). Social and emotional functioning of older Asian American adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(4), 289-304. doi:10.1023/A:1007598007205

Mandara, J., Gaylord-Harden, N. K., Richards, M. H., & Ragsdale, B. L. (2009). The effects of changes in racial identity and self-esteem on changes in African American adolescents’ mental health. Child Development, 80, 1660-1675. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01360.x

Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. Handbook of adolescent psychology, 9(11), 159-187.

Motti-Stefanidi F., & Masten A. S. (2017). A resilience perspective on immigrant youth adaptation and development. In N. J. Cabrera & B. Leyendecker (Eds.), Handbook on positive development of minority children and youth. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43645-6_2

Parham, T.A. (1989). Cycles of psychological nigrescence. The Counselling Psychologist, 17, 187-226. doi:10.1177/0011000089172001

Phinney, J. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176. doi:10.1177/074355489272003

Phinney, J. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. Organista, P. Chun & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 63-81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Phinney, J., & Tarver, S. (1988). Ethnic identity search and commitment in Black and White eighth graders. Journal of Early Adolescence, 8, 265-277. doi:10.1177/0272431688083004

Pinckney, H. P., Outley, C., Blake, J. J., & Kelly, B. (2011). Promoting positive youth development of Black youth: A rites of passage framework. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(1), 98-112.

Pomales, J., Claiborn, C. D., & LaFromboise, T. D. (1986). Effects of Black students' racial identity on perceptions of White counselors varying in cultural sensitivity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(1), 57-61. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.33.1.57

Rick, K., & Forward, J. (1992). Acculturation and perceived intergenerational differences among youth. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 23, 85-94. doi:10.1177/0022022192231006

Rosenberg, M., & Simmons, R. (1971). Black and White self-esteem: The urban school child. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

Serafica, F. C. (1997). Psychopathology and resilience in Asian American children and adolescents. Applied Development Science, 1, 145-155. doi:10.1207/s1532480xads0103_5

Serafica, F. C., & Vargas, L. A. (2006). Cultural diversity in the development of child psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, 588-626. doi:10.1002/9780470939383.ch15

Snowden, L. R., & Cheung, F. K. (1990) Use of inpatient mental health services by members of ethnic minority groups. American Psychologist, 45(3), 347–355.

Suárez-Orozco, C., Motti-Stefanidi, F., Marks, A., & Katsiaficas, D. (2018). An integrative risk and resilience model for understanding the adaptation of immigrant-origin children and youth. American Psychologist, 73(6), 781–796. doi:10.1037/amp0000265

Sue, S., Fujino, D., Hu, L. T., Takeuchi, D. T., & Zane, N. W. (1991) Community mental health services for ethnic minority groups: A test of the cultural responsiveness hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 533–540.

Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Quintana, S. M., Lee, R. M., Cross, W. E., Jr., Rivas-Drake, D., Schwartz, S. J., . . . Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: an integrated conceptualization. Child Development, 85(1), 21–39. doi:10.1111/cdev.12196

Umemoto, K., & Ong, P. (2006). Asian American and Pacific Islander youth: Risks, challenges and opportunities. AAPI Nexus: Policy, Practice and Community, 4(2), v-x. Retrieved from UCLA Asian American Studies Center website: http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/aascpress/nexus4_2ME.pdf

U.S. Census. (2009). United States Population Projections: 2000-2050. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/library/working-papers/2009/demo/us-pop-proj-2000-2050.html

U.S. Census. (2017). Asian-American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month: May 2017. United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2017/cb17-ff07.html

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity A supplement to mental health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from http://health-equity.pitt.edu/866/

Vespa, J., Armstrong, D. M., & Medina, L. (2018). Demographic Turning Points for the United States: Population Projections for 2020 to 2060. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2018/demo/P25_1144.pdf

Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science, 331(6023), 1447-1451. doi:10.1126/science.1198364

Waterman, A. S. (1984). Identity formation: Discovery or creation? The Journal of Early Adolescence, 4(4), 329–341. doi:10.1177/0272431684044004

Williams, M. W., Hean Foo, K., & Haarhoff, B. (2006). Cultural considerations in using cognitive behaviour therapy with Chinese people: A case study of an elderly Chinese woman with generalised anxiety disorder. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(3), 153-162.

Wing, J. Y. (2007). Beyond Black and White: The model minority myth and the invisibility of Asian American students. The Urban Review, 39(4), 455-487. doi:10.1007/s11256-007-0058-6

Yamaguchi, A., Kim, M. S., Oshio, A., & Akutsu, S. (2016). Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults. Health Psychology Open, 3(1). doi:10.1177/2055102916650093

Yeh, C. J., & Hwang, M. Y. (2011). Interdependence in ethnic identity and self: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(4), 420-429. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01925.x

Zane, N., Sue, S., Chang, J., Huang, L., Huang, J., & Lowe, S. (2005). Beyond ethnic match: Effects of client–therapist cognitive match in problem perception, coping orientation, and therapy goals on treatment outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(5), 569-585. doi:10.1002/jcop.20067




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2019.708

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Yi-Ju Wu, Corliss Outley, David Matarrita-Cascante

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.