Restorative Youth Sports: An Applied Model for Resolving Conflicts and Building Positive Relationships

Michael A. Hemphill, Emily M. Janke, Barrie Gordon, Haley Farrar

Abstract


When handled effectively, conflict provides opportunities to strengthen relationships and assist youth in developing peaceful conflict resolution skills. Sport participation is one context in which youth develop skills and encounter conflict. The purpose of this study was to develop an applied model that addresses conflict resolution in sport-based youth development programs. Using qualitative interviewing, a community-engaged approach guided the selection of participants and data analysis. We used the models of restorative practice and Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) through sports to guide our study. Following interviews with a variety of community partners, we found that the values of sport are often in conflict with restorative practices. However, a relational approach such as TPSR aligns well with the values of restorative practices. Based on our findings, an applied model was developed to illustrate how restorative practice can be utilized in a sport context. The Restorative Youth Sports (RYS) model recognizes that conflicts and tension are natural and inherent to all relationships. When handled appropriately, conflict provides opportunities to strengthen relationships. Youth sport provides a unique context where youth are presented with problems and conflicts to solve and promote healthy relationships among youth.


Keywords


sport-based youth development; teaching responsibility; restorative practices; youth sports

Full Text:

PDF

References


Benson, P. L., & Scales, P. C. (2009). Positive youth development and the prevention of youth aggression and violence. International Journal of Developmental Science, 3(3), 218-234. doi: 10. 3233/DEV-2009-3302

Boyd, S., & Felgate, R. (2015). A positive culture of support: Final report from the evaluation of PB4L school-wide. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.

Bringle, R. G., Clayton, P. H., & Price, M. F. (2009). Partnerships in service learning and civic engagement. Partnerships: A Journal of Service Learning & Civic Engagement, 1(1), 1-20.

Buckle, M. E., & Walsh, D. S. (2013). Teaching responsibility to gang-affiliated youths. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(2), 53-58. doi: 10.1080/07303084.2013.757193

Community-Campus Partnerships for Health. (2006). Principles of good community-campus partnerships. Seattle, WA: Author.

Dostilio, L. D., Brackmann, S. M., Edwards, K. E., Harrison, B., Kliewer, B. W., & Clayton, P. H. (2012). Reciprocity: Saying what we mean and meaning what we say. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 19(1), 17-32. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.3239521.0019.102

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564

Escarti, A., Llopis-Goig, R., & Wright, P. M. (2018). Assessing the implementation fidelity of a school-based teaching personal and social responsibility program in physical education and other subject areas. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. doi: 10.1123/jtpe.2016-0200

Evans, K., & Vaandering, D. (2016). The little book of restorative justice in education: Fostering responsibility, healing, and hope in schools. New York, NY: Good Books.

Farey, T., & Solomon, J. (2017). State of play 2017: Trends and developments. Aspen, CO: The Aspen Institute.

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Cote, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 19-40. doi: 10.1080/1740898042000334890

Gordon, B. (2010). An examination of the responsibility model in a New Zealand secondary school physical education program. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, 21-37. doi: 10.1123/jtpe/29.1.21

Gordon, B., Jacobs, J. M., & Wright, P. M. (2016). Social and emotional learning through a teaching personal and social responsibility based after-school program for disengaged middle school boys. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35, 358-369. doi: 10.1123/jtpe.2016-0106

Gregory, A., Clawson, K., Davis, A., & Gerewitz, J. (2015). The promise of restorative practices to transform teacher-student relationships and achieve equity in school discipline. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 25(1), 1-29. doi: 10.1080/10474412.2014.929950

Hellison, D. (2011). Teaching responsibility through physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hellison, D., Martinek, T., & Cutforth, N. (1996). Beyond violence prevention in inner-city physical activity programs. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 2(4), 321-337. doi: 10.1207/s15327949pac0204

Hemphill, M. A., & Martinek, T. (2017). Community engagement through sport: University partnership to promote youth development. Kinesiology Review, 6, 311-316. doi: 10.1123/kr.2017-0027

Hemphill, M. A., Templin, T. J., & Wright, P. M. (2015). Implementation and outcomes of a responsibility-based continuing professional development protocol in physical education. Sport, Education, and Society, 20(3), 398-419. doi: 10.108013573322.2012

Holt, N. L., Neely, K. C., Slater, L. G., Camire, M., Cote, J., Fraser-Thomas, J., MacDonald, D., Strachan, L., & Tamminen, K. A. (2017). A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 1-49. doi: 10.1080/1750984X.2016.1180704

Jameson, J., Clayton, P., & Jaeger, A. (2010). Community engaged scholarship as mutually transformative partnerships. In L. Harter, J. Hamel-Lambert, & J. Millesen (Eds.), Participatory partnerships for social action and research (pp. 259-277). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Janke, E. M., & Clayton, P. H. (2011). Excellence in community engagement and community-engaged scholarship: Advancing the discourse at UNCG (Vol. 1). Greensboro: University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Lederach, J. P. (2003). The little book of conflict transformation. New York, NY: Good Books.

Lee, O., & Martinek, T. (2009). Navigating two cultures: An investigation of cultures of a responsibility-based physical activity program and school. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 230-240. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2009.10599557

Lewis, S. (2009). Improving school climate: Findings from schools implementing restorative practices. Bethlehem, PA: International Institute for Restorative Practices.

Macready, T. (2009). Learning social responsibility in schools: A restorative practice. Educational Psychology in Practice, 25(3), 211-220. doi: 10.1080/02667360903151767

Martinek, T. (2016). Project Effort: Creating responsible leadership through values-based learning. Active and Healthy Magazine, 23, 43-46.

Martinek, T., & Hellison, D. (2009). Youth leadership in sport and physical education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Martinek, T., & Hellison, D. (2016). Learning responsibility through physical activity. In N. L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (2nd ed., pp. 180-190). New York, NY: Routledge.

Martinek, T., Schilling, T., & Johnson, D. (2001). Evaluation of a sport and mentoring program designed to foster personal and social responsibility in underserved youth. The Urban Review 33(1), 29-45. doi: 10.1023/A:101033281

Morrison, B., Blood, P., & Thorsborne, M. (2005). Practicing restorative justice in school communities: The challenge of culture change. Public Organization Review, 5(4), 335-357. doi: 10.1007/s1115-005-5095-6

New Zealand Ministry of Education. (2014). Positive behaviour for learning: Restorative practice kete. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

New Zealand Ministry of Justice. (2011). Restorative justice: Best practices in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

Nilson, P. (2015). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. Implementation Science, 10(53). doi: 10.1186/s13012-015-0242-0

Noy, C. (2008). Sampling knowledge: The hermeneutics of snowball sampling in qualitative research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 11(4), 327-344. doi: 10.1080.13645570701401305

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rahim, M. A., (1983). A measure of styles of handling interpersonal conflict. Academy of Management Journal, 26(2), 368-376. doi: 10.2307/255985

Richards, K. A. R., & Hemphill, M. A. (2018). A practical guide to collaborative qualitative data analysis. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37(2), 225-231. doi: 10.1123/jtpe.2017-0084

Riley, A., & Anderson-Butcher, D. (2012). Participation in a summer sport-based youth development program for disadvantaged youth: Getting the parent perspective. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(7), 1367-1377. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.03.008

Roehlkepartain, E., Pekel, K., Syvertsen, A., Sethi, J., Sullivan, T., & Scales, P. (2017). Relationships first: Creating connections that help youth people thrive. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Rofe, C., Stewart, M., & Wood, M. (2016). Improving student’s engagement: Changing classroom discourse using teacher restorative professional development. International Journal of Teaching and Case Studies, 7, 223-239. doi: 10.1504/IJTCS.2016.080933

Roloff, M. E. (2009). Links between conflict management research and practice. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 37(4), 339-348. doi: 1080/00909880903233200

Saltmarsh, J., Hartley, M., & Clayton, P. (2009). Democratic engagement white paper. Boston, MA: New England Resource Center for Higher Education. Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/274

Search Institute. (2018). The developmental relationships framework. Minneapolis, MN: Author.

Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Siffert, A., & Schwarz, B. (2011). Parental conflict resolution styles and children’s adjustment: Children’s appraisals and emotion regulation as mediators. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 172(1), 21-39. doi: 10. 1080/00221325.2010.503723

Smith, D., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2015). Better than carrots or sticks: Restorative practices for positive classroom management. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Sport New Zealand. (2015). Community sport: Strategy 2015-20. Wellington, New Zealand: Author.

Volkema, R. J., & Bergmann, T. J. (1995). Conflict styles as indicators of behavioral patterns in interpersonal conflicts. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(1), 5-15. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1995.9711395

Walsh, D. (2008). Helping youth in underserved communities envision possible futures. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(2), 209-221. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2008.10599484

Wright, P. M., Li, W., Ding, S., & Pickering, M. (2010). Integrating a personal and social responsibility program into a wellness course for urban high school students: Assessing implementation and educational outcomes. Sport, Education, and Society, 15(3), 277-298. doi: 10.1080/13573322.2010.493309

Zehr, H. (2002). The little book of restorative justice. Intercourse, PA: Good Books.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2018.603

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Michael A Hemphill

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.