The Choices, Challenges, and Lessons Learned from a Multi-Method Social-Emotional / Character Assessment in and Out of School Time Setting

Valerie B. Shapiro, Sarah Accomazzo, Jennette Claassen, Jennifer L. Fleming Robitaille

Abstract


Out-of-School-Time (OST) programs are increasingly recognized as a venue to actively engage children and youth in character development activities, but little guidance exists as to how to assess individual children and youth in OST environments for the sake of evaluating their character development. This research brief uses an illustrative case study to reflect upon the experience of selecting and completing a strength-based, multi-modal social-emotional / character assessment that used a direct assessment and a multiple informant behavior rating scale in an OST setting. Insights derived from the case study reveal opportunities and challenges associated with each assessment modality. This paper shares lessons learned with those conducting individual assessments in OST environments and with those seeking to improve our capacity to complete screening, formative, and summative assessments of social-emotional and character constructs in OST youth development programs to help children. 

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afterschool Alliance. (2014). “America After 3PM.” Retrieved from http://www.afterschoolalliance.org/documents/AA3PM-2014/AA3PM_National_Report.pdf.

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (n.d.). Character education. A Lexicon of Learning Online Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon-of-Learning/C.aspx.

Berkowitz, M.W. (1998). Primer for Evaluating a Character Education Initiative. Washington, DC: Character Education Partnership.

Berkowitz, M.W., Battistich, V.A., & Bier, M.C. (2008). What works in Character Education: What is known and what needs to be known. In L. Nucci, & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Handbook of Moral and Character Education. New York: Routledge.

Berkowitz, M.W., & Bier, M.C. (2005). What Works in Character Education: A Research-driven Guide for Educators. Washington, DC: Character Education Partnership.

Catalano, R.F., Toumbourou, J.W., & Hawkins, J.D. (2014). Positive youth development in the United States: History, efficacy, and links to moral and character education. In L. Nucci, D. Narvaez, & T. Krettenauer (Eds.), Handbook of moral and character education (2nd ed.). (pp423-440). New York and London: Routledge.

Krettenaurer. (Eds.), Handbook of Moral and Character Education (2nd ed). New York: Routledge.Character Education Partnership. (2008). Performance Values: Why They Matter and What Schools Can Do to Foster Their Development. Washington, DC.

Denham, S.A. (2015). Assessment of SEL in Educational Contexts. In J.A. Durlak, C.E. Domitrovich, R.P. Weissberg, & T.P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Emotional Learning: Research and Practice. New York: Guilford.

Denham, S.A., Ji, P., & Hamre, B. (2010). Compendium of preschool through elementary social-emotional learning and associated assessment measures. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning.

Doll, E., & Elliott, S.N. (1994). Consistency of observations of preschoolers’ social behavior. Journal of Early Intervention, 18(2), 227-238.

Elias, M.J., Kranzler, A. Parker, S.J., Kash, V.M., & Weiessberg, R.P. (2014). The complementary perspectives of social and emotional learning, moral education, and character education. In L. Nucci, D. Narvaez, & T. Krettenaurer (Eds.), Handbook of Moral and Character Education (2nd ed). New York: Routledge.

Elliott, S.N., Frey, J.R., & Davies, M. (2015). Systems for assessing and improving students’ social skills to achieve academic competence. In J.A. Durlak, C.E. Domitrovich, R.P. Weissberg, & T.P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Emotional Learning: Research and Practice. New York: Guilford.

Epstein, M.H. (2004). Behavioral and emotional rating scale (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Fortson, J., James-Burdumy, S., Bleeker, M., Beyler, N., London, R.A., Westrich, L., Stokes-Guinan, K., & Castrechini, S. (2013). Impact and implementation findings from an experimental evaluation of Playworks: Effects on school climate, academic learning, student social skills, and behavior. Retrieved from: http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/evaluations/2013/rwjf405971.

Gresham, F.M., & Elliott, S.N. (2008). Social Skills Improvement System - Rating Scales. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Gullotta, T.P. (2015). After-school programming and SEL. In J.A. Durlak, C.E. Domitrovich, R.P. Weissberg, & T.P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Emotional Learning:Research and Practice. New York: Guilford.

Haggerty, K., Elgin, J., & Woolley, A. (2011). Social-emotional learning and school climate assessment measures for middle school youth. Retrieved from the Raikes Foundation website: http://www.raikesfoundation.org/

Hawkins, J.D., Jenson, J.M., Catalano, R.F., Fraser, M.W., Botvin, G.J., Shapiro, V.B., Bender, K.A., Brown, H., Beardslee, W., Brent, D., Leslie, L.K., Rotheram-Borus, M.J., Shea, P., Shih, A., Anthony, E.K., Haggerty, K.P., Gorman-Smith, D., Casey, E., Stone, S., & the Coalition for Behavioral Health. (2015). Unleashing the Power of Prevention. American Academy of Social Work & Social Welfare Grand Challenge Initiative. Paper No. 10.

LeBuffe, P.A., Ross, K.M., Fleming, J.L., & Naglieri, J.A. (2012). The Devereux Suite: Assessing and promoting resilience in children ages 1 month to 14 years. In S. Prince-Embury & D. Saklofske (Eds.). Translating Resiliency Theory for Application with Children, Youth, and Adults.

LeBuffe, P.A., Shapiro, V.B., & Naglieri, J.A. (2009/2014). The Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) Assessment, Technical Manual, and User’s Guide. Charlotte, NC: Apperson, Inc.

Leming, J.S. (1993). In search of effective character education. Education Leadership, 51(3), 63-71.

Leming, J.S. (2008). Research and practice in moral and character education: Loosely coupled phenomena. In L. Nucci, & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Handbook of Moral and Character Education. New York: Routledge.

London, R.A., Westrich, L., Stokes-Guinan, K., & McLaughlin, M. (2015). Playing fair: The contribution of high-functioning recess to overall school climate in low-income elementary schools. Journal of School Health, 85(1): 53–60.

Maras, M.A., Thompson A.M., Lewis, C., Thornburg, K. & Hawks, J. (2015). Developing a tiered response model for social-emotional learning through interdisciplinary collaboration. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 25, 1-26.

McKown, C. (2015). Challenges and opportunities in the direct assessment of Children’s Social and Emotional Comprehension. In J.A. Durlak, C.E. Domitrovich, R.P. Weissberg, & T.P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Emotional Learning: Research and Practice. New York: Guilford.

Merrell, K.W. (1993). Using Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Social Skills and Antisocial Behavior in School Settings: Development of the School Social Behavior Scales. School Psychology Review, 22(1) 115-133.

Merrell, K.W. (2011). Social and emotional assets and resilience scales (SEARS). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Merrell, K.W., & Gueldner, B.A. (2010). Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Promoting Mental Health and Academic Success. New York: Guilford Press.

Naglieri, J.A., LeBuffe, P.A., & Shapiro, V.B. (2011/2014). The Devereux Student Strengths Assessment - Mini (DESSA-Mini) Assessment, Technical Manual, and User’s Guide. Lewisville, NC: Kaplan.

Naglieri, J.A., LeBuffe, P.A., & Shapiro, V.B. (2011). Universal screening for social emotional competencies: A study of the reliability and validity of the DESSA-mini. Psychology in the Schools, 48(7), 660-671.

Naglieri, J.A., LeBuffe, P.A., & Shapiro, V.B. (2013). Assessment of social-emotional competencies related to resilience. In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of Resilience in Children. NY, NY: Kluwer/Academic Press.

National Clearinghouse on Families & Youth. (2007) Putting positive youth development into practice: A resource guide. Silver Spring, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families, & Family and Youth Services Bureau.

National Afterschool Association. (2011). Core Knowledge and Competencies for Afterschool and Youth Development Professionals. Retrieved from: http://naaweb.org/images/PDFs/NAA_CKC_Blue_Cover.pdf.

Nickerson, A.B., & Fishman, C. (2009). Convergent and divergent validity of the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment. School Psychology Quarterly. 24(1), 48-59.

Nucci, L., Narvaez, D., & Krettenauer, T. (2014). Handbook of Moral and Character Education (2nd ed). New York: Routledge.

Russo-Ponsaran, N.M., McKown, C., Johnson, J.K., Allen, A., & Knudsen, K. (2012). Usability & Likability of the Virtual Environment for Social Information Processing (VESIP) for Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders. Presented at the International Society for Autism Research: Toronto: Ontario.

Sipos, R. & Maupin, L (2010). 11 Principles of Effective Character Education. Character.org: Washington, DC.

Smith, G.T., Shapiro, V.B., Sperry, R.W., & LeBuffe, P.A. (2014). A strengths-based approach to supervised visitation in child welfare. Child Care in Practice, 20(1), 98–119.

Shapiro, V.B. (2015). Resilience: Have we not gone far enough? A response to Larry Davis. Social Work Research, 39(1): 7-10.

Tsang, K.L.V., Wong, P.Y.H & Lo, S.K. (2012). Assessing psychosocial well-being of adolescents: A systematic review of measurement instruments. Child: Care, Health and Development. 38(35), 629-646.

Weissberg, R.P., Durlak, J.A., Domitrovich, C.E., & Gullotta, T.P. (2015). Social and Emotional Learning: Past, present, and future. In J.A. Durlak, C.E. Domitrovich, R.P. Weissberg, & T.P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of Social and Emotional Learning: Research and Practice. New York: Guilford.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2015.5

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Youth Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.